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Both lean-asthma (lean-OVA) and obese-asthma (DIO-OVA) groups were treated with TNF-? blockade antibody and 2 to deplete TNF-? and alveolar macrophages, respectively
Depletion of TNF-? or alveolar macrophages attenuate lung dysfunction in the obesity-related asthma model.
(a) Both lean-OVA and DIO-OVA mice were treated with TNF-? blockade antibody or Cl2MDP for depletion of TNF-? or alveolar macrophages, respectively, and TNF-? levels in the lung homogenates were measured.
Depletion of alveolar macrophages
Liposomes encapsulated with dichloromethylene diphosphonic acid disodium salt (Cl2MDP, Sigma-Aldrich) were prepared as previously described . A suspension of Cl2MDP-liposomes contained about 6 mg Cl2MDP per milliliter suspension. Cl2MDP-containing liposomes (300 µg/50 µL/mouse) were administered intranasally to obese or lean mice 12 hours before the OVA challenge to eliminate alveolar macrophages.